5 Common Types of Anemia
There are more than 400 types of anemia, with different causes and treatments. But of the many types of anemia, there are five types of anemia that are more common.
Anemia is a condition in which the body lacks red blood cells, which are blood cells that function to deliver oxygen to all organs of the body. Lack of oxygen supply can interfere with the function of organs.
Anemia can be identified from several symptoms, such as feeling weak, pale, headaches, palpitations, and difficulty concentrating.
Recognizing Kinds of Anemia
Here are some common types of anemia:
1. Desi deficiency anemia
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia. This condition occurs due to the body’s iron deficiency, which is an important component in the formation of red blood cells.
A number of conditions can cause iron deficiency anemia, including low-iron diets, pregnancy, chronic bleeding such as from gastrointestinal injuries or menstruation, impaired iron absorption, side effects of drugs, to certain diseases, such as cancer, intestinal inflammation, and myoma.
The condition is generally dealt with by taking iron supplements and undergoing a high-iron diet. In addition, the cause of iron deficiency anemia also needs to be overcome.
2. Vitamin B12 and Folate deficiency anemia
The body needs vitamin B12 and folate (vitamin B9) to make new red blood cells. Lack of one or both of these vitamins can cause anemia of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.
This type of anemia can occur due to a diet low in both vitamins. In addition, vitamin deficiency anemia can also occur because the body has difficulty or fails to absorb folate or vitamin B12. This condition is also called pernicious anemia.
Treatment of anemia is generally in the form of dietary changes, as well as supplementation with vitamin B12 and folic acid to meet the body’s needs for both of these intakes.
3. Hemolytic anemia
Hemolytic anemia occurs when red blood cell damage occurs faster than the body’s ability to replace it with new healthy blood cells.
The causes of hemolytic anemia are quite diverse, ranging from hereditary diseases, such as thalassemia and G6PD, autoimmune diseases, infections, drug side effects, to disorders of the heart valves.
Treatment will be adjusted to the severity and cause of hemolytic anemia. Treatment can be in the form of blood transfusions, administration of corticosteroid drugs, or surgery.
4. Aplastic anemia
Aplastic anemia is anemia that needs to be watched out for because of the high risk of life threatening. This condition occurs when the body cannot produce enough red blood cells due to disruption in the bone marrow, which is the manufacturer of blood cells in the body.
Aplastic anemia can be inherited from parents, but can also occur due to infections, side effects of drugs, autoimmune diseases, radiation therapy in cancer, and exposure to toxic substances.
This condition is generally overcome by administering antibiotics and antivirals if there is an infection, blood transfusion, bone marrow transplantation, or administration of immune suppressive drugs.
5. Sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell anemia occurs due to genetic disorders that make red blood cells shaped like a sickle. These cells die so fast that the body never has enough red blood cells.
In addition, this abnormal blood cell shape also makes it more rigid and sticky so that it can block blood flow. Giving drugs can be done to prevent the condition from getting worse. However, the only way to overcome this type of anemia is by bone marrow transplantation.
There are many types of anemia, and the causes can be very diverse. Some types of anemia can be prevented, but some cannot be prevented (anemia passed from parent to child).
If you feel symptoms of anemia, especially if there are factors that put you at risk of developing anemia, you should consult a doctor to be sure. The doctor will also identify the type of anemia you are suffering from and its causes, and provide appropriate treatment.