6 Types of Heart Surgery You Need to Know
Windowofworld.com – Heart surgery is a procedure to save the lives of patients suffering from heart disease. The type of heart surgery performed depends on the heart disease. The success of heart surgery can prolong patients’ life expectancy.
Heart disease is often equated with cardiovascular disease. The term cardiovascular disease is used to refer to diseases related to the heart and blood vessels, for example blood vessel blockage. Blockage of blood vessels can result in a heart attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke. Meanwhile, heart disease refers to all the abnormalities that occur in the heart. In addition to narrowing of the heart arteries, abnormalities in the heart muscle, heart rhythm, until the heart valve is included in heart disease.
Patients who need heart surgery
The type of heart surgery performed depends on the illness. Generally patients with the following conditions require heart surgery procedures:
- Having coronary heart disease or heart failure.
- Having damage or abnormalities in the heart.
- Implanted pacemakers.
- Need a heart transplant.
Know the types of Heart Surgery
When you hear the term heart surgery, you might imagine that the chest will be dissected so that the doctor can repair the damaged part. In fact, cardiac surgery procedures do not have to be performed openly like that.
Open heart surgery is a type of surgery where the patient’s chest is opened wide to do surgery on blood vessels, valves, or heart muscle. This procedure is also called conventional heart surgery. Nevertheless, at this time heart surgery is getting more sophisticated.
The following are the types of heart disease along with proper heart surgery procedures to overcome them.
1. Bypass surgery (CABG)
Heart bypass surgery (CABG) is an open heart operation performed on patients with coronary heart disease. Bypass surgery is the most common type of heart surgery performed. The procedure involves the transplantation of healthy arteries or veins in the blocked heart arteries. This allows the grafted arteries to carry fresh blood to the heart.
The purpose of bypass surgery is to increase the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart, reduce the risk of heart attack, cure chest pain (angina), and restore the physical abilities of sufferers of heart disease.
2. Heart valve surgery
Heart valve surgery is usually done to replace or repair heart valves. In heart valve disease, at least one in four heart valves does not function properly, it can be caused by narrowing or leakage. Heart valve surgery aims to restore the normal functioning of the heart.
Heart valve problems that often occur are narrowing of the aortic valve (aortic stenosis), aortic valve leakage (aortic regurgitation), and mitral valve leakage. In aortic leak, blood that should be pumped throughout the body actually returns to the heart.
This condition can lead to heart failure. Whereas in mitral valve leakage, oxygen-rich blood flows back to the lungs instead of entering the heart. Patients with mitral valve leak will experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and irregular heartbeat.
In this operation, the valve that is abnormal will be replaced with a mechanical heart valve, a valve from the donor, or move the position of the healthy valve to the valve position that is damaged.
3. Heart transplant
The heart transplant procedure is done by replacing the damaged patient’s heart with a healthy donor heart. A heart transplant is needed when the heart can no longer function to pump blood. This procedure is generally performed in patients with end-stage heart failure.
Although it can give patients new hope, heart transplants also have risks, such as a rejection reaction to a new heart, because the recipient’s immune system detects the organ as a foreign object that is considered dangerous. But this can be minimized by taking immunosuppressant drugs.
4. Angioplasty (PCI)
This heart surgery procedure is also known as Percutaneous Coronary Interventions [PCI]. Angioplasty is performed to open blocked heart arteries. You do this by inserting a special tool in the blocked artery to help dilate it.
In angioplasty, a thin plastic tube is inserted into the artery through the groin or arm. Next the catheter is placed past the plastic tube to be directed to the arteries that surround the heart.
Angioplasty can overcome the symptoms of coronary heart disease. By opening a blocked artery, it is hoped the patient will no longer experience chest pain and shortness of breath. However, patients with weak heart muscle, diabetes, or have many heart blood vessels that are problematic, it is better to undergo bypass surgery than this procedure.
5. Maze surgery
This surgery technique, also called ablation surgery, is a procedure for managing arrhythmias or heart rate rhythm abnormalities. This abnormal heartbeat prevents the heart from pumping blood to the maximum throughout the body.
In this procedure, the doctor will make a small incision to create scar tissue. Another way is to use radio wave energy to destroy small areas of heart tissue that cause irregular heartbeats. Destroying this tissue helps to make the heartbeat return to normal.
Apart from making a small incision, this procedure can also be done by open heart surgery. Especially in patients who will undergo heart bypass surgery, or heart valve surgery.
6. Pacemaker implants
A pacemaker is a small device that is implanted under the skin of the chest or abdomen. Pacemakers use low-energy electrical signals to control heart rhythm. Most pacemakers have sensors, so this tool will only work if it detects an abnormal heart rhythm.
Whereas on ICD, this tool works by checking the abnormal heart rate. When an abnormality is detected, the ICD will send an electric shock to the heart to make the heart rhythm return to normal.
This heart surgery procedure is done by making a small incision. Then the doctor will direct a small wire from the device through blood vessels to your heart.
After heart surgery, patients are required to receive intensive care at the hospital. After being discharged from the hospital, outpatient post-cardiac surgery is performed to monitor the patient’s condition, regulate the dosage and administration of medicines, and treat scars from surgery.
To speed up the recovery process of heart surgery, you are advised to reduce the consumption of foods high in fat, sugar, and salt. In addition, try to manage stress well, avoid smoking, and actively move.