9 Types of Support Examination are Commonly Conducted
Windowofworld.com – Investigations are part of a medical examination conducted by a doctor to diagnose certain diseases. This examination is generally carried out after a physical examination and tracing a history of complaints or a history of the disease in the patient.
Supporting examination or diagnostic examination is an examination conducted by a doctor to determine the diagnosis of the patient’s disease and its severity.
Investigations are usually carried out when the patient consults a doctor because of complaints or certain symptoms, or when the patient underwent a routine medical check-up.
In addition to diagnosing the disease, investigations are also carried out to determine the appropriate treatment steps and monitor the success of therapy in patients.
Various Types of Supporting or Diagnostic Examinations
There are many types of supporting examinations that can be done by a doctor. However, there are several types of supporting examinations that are often carried out, including:
1. Blood examination
Blood tests are the most common type of investigation. This examination is done by taking a patient’s blood sample for later analysis in the laboratory.
Blood tests are usually done to detect certain diseases or medical conditions, such as anemia and infections. Through this investigation, doctors can monitor several blood components and organ function, including:
- Blood cells, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets or pieces of blood
- Blood plasma
- Blood chemicals, such as blood sugar or glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, iron, and electrolytes
- Blood gas analysis
- The function of certain organs, such as the kidneys, liver, pancreas, bile, and thyroid gland
- Tumor marker
Before conducting a blood test, first ask the doctor about what preparations should be made, for example whether it is necessary to fast or stop certain medications before taking a blood sample.
2. Urine examination
Urine examination is a type of supporting examination that is often done to determine health conditions, kidney function, and whether a person is taking certain drugs. In addition, urine tests are also usually performed on pregnant women to confirm pregnancy or to detect preeclampsia.
Urine tests can be done as part of routine medical check-ups or when doctors suspect certain diseases, such as kidney disease, urinary tract infections, or kidney stones.
3. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
These investigations are often used to monitor the work of the heart, especially the rhythm of the heartbeat and the electrical flow of the heart. ECG can also be done to detect heart abnormalities, such as arrhythmias, heart attacks, heart swelling, abnormalities in the heart valves, and coronary heart disease.
ECG examination can be done at the doctor’s office, hospital emergency room, or in the patient care room, such as in the ICU or in the inpatient ward.
When undergoing an EKG examination, the patient will be asked to lie down and remove the clothes and jewelry worn, then the doctor will install electrodes on the chest, arms and legs of the patient.
When the examination takes place, the patient is advised not to move much or talk because it can interfere with the results of the examination.
X-rays are a type of investigation that uses X-ray radiation or X-rays to describe the condition of various organs and tissues of the body. This check is usually done to detect:
- Bone and joint disorders, including broken bones, arthritis, and joint displacement (dislocation)
- Tooth Disorders
- Airway obstruction or gastrointestinal tract
- Urinary tract stones
- Infections, such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, and appendicitis
In certain cases, the doctor may give contrast agents to the patient by injection or by mouth (taken), so that the X-ray images are clearer.
However, this contrast agent can sometimes cause some side effects, such as allergic reactions, dizziness, nausea, bitter tongue, to kidney disorders.
5. Ultrasonography (USG)
Ultrasound is a supplementary examination that uses sound waves to produce images of organs and tissues in the body.
These investigations are often done to detect abnormalities in organs in the body, such as tumors, stones, or infections in the kidneys, pancreas, liver, and bile.
Not only that, ultrasound is also commonly done as part of a pregnancy examination to monitor the condition of the fetus and to guide the doctor when performing a biopsy.
Before an ultrasound examination is performed, the doctor may ask the patient to fast and drink water and hold urination for a while. The patient will then be allowed to urinate and eat again after an ultrasound examination has been completed.
6. Computed tomography scan (CT Scan)
CT scan is a supporting examination that utilizes X-ray rays with a special machine to create images of tissues and organs in the body.
The image produced by the CT scan will be seen more clearly than ordinary X-ray images. CT scan usually lasts about 20-60 minutes.
To produce better or more accurate image quality in detecting certain abnormalities, such as tumors or cancer, doctors can use contrast agents when doing a CT scan.
7. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
MRI at a glance is similar to CT scan, but this investigation does not use X-rays or radiation, but magnetic waves and high-power radio waves to describe the condition of organs and tissues in the body. MRI procedures usually last for 15–90 minutes.
MRI examination can be done to examine almost all parts of the body, including the brain and nervous system, bones and joints, breasts, heart and blood vessels, and other internal organs, such as the liver, uterus, and prostate gland.
Just like CT scans and X-rays, doctors will also sometimes use contrast agents to improve the quality of images produced on MRI examinations.
Fluoroscopy is a radiological examination method that uses X-rays to produce a series of images resembling videos. These investigations are generally combined with a contrast agent, so that the resulting image is clearer.
Fluorokospi is usually used to detect certain abnormalities in the body, such as damage or disorders of the bones, heart, blood vessels, and digestive system. Fluoroscopy can also be done to help doctors when performing cardiac catheterization or heart ring installation.
Endoscopy aims to examine organs in the body with an endoscope, which is a small hose-shaped device that is elastic and has a camera on the end. This tool is connected to a monitor or TV screen, so the doctor can see the condition of organs in the body.
Endoscopic examination is usually done to monitor the condition of the gastrointestinal tract and diagnose certain diseases, such as gastritis or inflammation of the stomach, peptic ulcers, GERD, difficulty swallowing, gastrointestinal bleeding, and gastric cancer.
In addition to several types of investigations above, there are several other types of investigations that are also often performed by doctors, such as:
- Electroencephalography (EEG)
- Stool examination
- Examination of body fluids, such as brain fluid, joint fluid, and pleural fluid
- Genetic examination
There are many types of supporting examinations with their respective functions, strengths, and weaknesses. A supplementary examination may be suitable for detecting certain types of diseases, but not effective for detecting other types of diseases. In fact, sometimes it takes several types of investigations to diagnose an illness.
Usually, the doctor will recommend a supplementary examination to confirm the diagnosis of the disease after anamnesa (question and answer) and physical examination on the patient. Types of investigations carried out will be adjusted to the disease suspected by the doctor and the general condition of the patient.