Circumcision: Indications, Preparations, Procedures and Risks – Circumcision is a surgical procedure that aims to remove the outer penis skin that covers the penis head. Circumcision is very common in Indonesia, both based on religious reasons and health reasons. Specifically for health reasons, circumcision is known to have several benefits.

In general, some benefits for men who undergo circumcision procedures:

  • Makes it easy to clean the penis.
  • Reducing the risk of urinary tract infections.
  • Reducing the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection.
  • Prevents penile cancer and cervical cancer in couples.

Indications of Circumcision

Circumcision can be done for religious reasons and health reasons. Circumcision performed to fulfill religious obligations is found in Islam and is usually performed on a person since he was a child.

As for health reasons, some diseases or conditions that can be treated through circumcision are:

1. Phimosis

Phimosis is a condition of the outer skin of the penis that cannot be pulled behind the head of the penis. Phimosis can cause pain when the penis is erect and urinates.

2. Paraphimosis

Paraphimosis is the condition of the outer skin of the penis that cannot return to its original position after being pulled behind the head of the penis. Paraphimosis must be treated immediately to prevent complications.

3. Balanitis

Balanitis is an infection of the head of the penis. Circumcision is recommended for patients with balanitis who often recur.

4. Balanitis xerotica obliterans

Balanitis xerotica obliterans a condition that causes thickening of the skin of the tip of the penis and the head of the penis.

Circumcision undertaken as a form of treatment is often recommended to patients, after other noninvasive treatment methods are ineffective for the patient. For example, balanitis can be treated with corticosteroid creams and antibiotic creams.

Circumcision Warning

Patients with the following conditions should be careful to undergo circumcision, namely:

  • Premature baby.
  • Having a deformity of the penis.
  • Having hypospadias and epispadia, which is an abnormality in the position of the ducts and urethra in the penis.
  • Small penis (micropenis).
  • Having dual sex (ambiguous genitalia).
  • Blood clotting disorders.

Preparation for Circumcision

Circumcision can be done in a hospital or clinic. Infants or children are generally allowed to be circumcised 1-2 days after delivery. However, if there are certain diseases or conditions, circumcision can be postponed. If the baby or children are ready to be circumcised, the doctor will notify parents about the benefits and risks of undergoing this procedure. The doctor will also ask for a family health history, especially related to abnormalities in the blood, such as hemophilia or Von Willebrand’s disease.

Children or adults who will undergo circumcision are usually asked not to eat or drink about 6 hours before the circumcision, especially if the patient will be given general anesthesia.

Execution of Circumcision Procedures

If undergoing circumcision at the hospital, the patient will be treated by a surgeon. Patients can be given local or general anesthesia, depending on the doctor’s advice and the patient’s choice. General anesthesia will make the patient undergo the entire circumcision procedure in an unconscious state. Whereas local anesthesia will only numb the area of ​​the penis and its surroundings during the circumcision procedure.

The patient will be laid during the procedure. The skin around the penis and groin will be cleaned using an antiseptic. After that, the doctor will anesthetize the patient. If you are given local anesthesia, the doctor will first give anesthetic cream (anesthesia) to the penis. If the cream has worked, the doctor will then give another anesthetic via an injection around the penis, to make the penis and the surrounding area numb.

The outer skin of the patient’s penis is then cut using a knife or surgical scissors. If bleeding occurs, it can be stopped by the cautery method (burned). Then the remnants of the outer skin that are still there will be stitched with the skin of the penis inside, using sewing thread that blends with the skin.

After circumcision

The circumcised penis will be bandaged and the patient is allowed to go home immediately, except for those using general anesthesia. The doctor will schedule a routine control time for the patient so that the healing of the circumcised penis can be monitored properly. For 3-4 days after circumcision, the patient will experience swelling and discomfort in the head of the penis. To reduce pain, patients will be given pain medication, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. Try to use loose underwear or diapers to help the penis heal. The healing time needed is around 10 days.

Contact your doctor immediately if any of the following occurs during the healing period of the penis:

  • Bleeding.
  • Fever.
  • Redness and swelling in the penis are getting worse.
  • Signs of infection, such as pus or bubbles filled with pus.
  • Do not urinate within 12 hours after circumcision.

Risk of Circumcision

Although circumcision is quite rare to cause complications, there are still risks that can occur in someone who goes through it. Among others are:

  • Penile pain.
  • Penile head irritation.
  • Increased risk of meatitis, which is inflammation of the urine hole.
  • Bleeding and infection at the site of circumcision.
  • Penile injury.
  • Decreased penile head sensitivity during sexual activity.
  • Hardening of the skin in circumcision scars.