Endoscopy: Indications, Warnings, Procedures and Side Effects
Windowofworld.com – Endoscopy is an examination procedure that aims to see the condition of certain body organs visually, using a special tool called an endoscope. In addition to examinations, endoscopy can also be used as a surgical procedure.
Endoscope is a device shaped like a flexible hose that is equipped with a camera at the edges, which can be connected to the monitor to project the captured image. Endoscopes can be inserted into the body through body cavities, such as the mouth, nose, anus, or through skin incisions (incisions) made specifically for endoscopy.
In addition to visual observation of organs, endoscopy can also facilitate doctors to do surgery on organs. Endoscopy can also facilitate removal of body tissues for medical purposes or tissue sampling (biopsy).
Based on the observed organs, endoscopy is divided into several types, namely:
- Arthroscopy, to observe the condition of the inside of the joint.
- Bronchoscopy, to observe the condition of the bronchi or respiratory tract leading to the lungs.
- Colonoscopy, to observe the condition of the large intestine.
- Enteroscopy, to observe the condition of the small intestine.
- Gastroscopy, to observe the condition of the esophagus (esophagus), stomach, and intestines 12 fingers (duodenum).
- Hysteroscopy, to observe the condition of the uterus (uterus).
- Laparoscopy, to observe the condition of organs in the abdominal or pelvic cavity.
- Laryngoscopy, to observe the condition of the vocal cords and larynx.
- Mediastinoscopy, to observe the condition of body organs in the cavity
- Cystoscopy, to observe the condition of the urethra (urethra) and bladder.
- Ureteroscopy, to observe the condition of the ureter, which is the urinary tract from the kidneys to the bladder.
Patients are recommended to undergo endoscopy to evaluate the symptoms caused by abnormalities in organs. The disorder can be an infection, inflammation, or cancer. Through the endoscopy procedure, doctors are also assisted to take tissue samples (biopsy). Some symptoms that may require endoscopy to support the diagnosis include:
- Complaints of the digestive tract, such as bowel movements or blood vomiting, diarrhea or vomiting continuously, abdominal pain, weight loss, dysphagia, and heartburn.
- Coughing up blood or chronic coughing.
- Urinary complaints, such as urinating blood or bedwetting.
- Recurrent miscarriage or bleeding from the vagina.
In addition, endoscopy can also be used to carry out medical procedures, such as:
- Repair damage to joints through
- Removing gallstones, or placing stents in the bile ducts or narrowed pancreas, through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
- Destroy the urinary tract stones and put a stent on the ureter, through ureteroscopy.
- Remove appendicitis which is inflamed in people with appendicitis through
- Lifting the myoma in the uterus through
- Blocking the bleeding in patients with peptic ulcers.
In general, endoscopy has a lower risk and is lighter than open surgery. Some risks that can occur in endoscopy are:
- Organ tearing.
- Continual pain in the area of action.
- Swelling and redness of the cut skin area.
Endoscopy preparation varies, depending on the type of endoscopy that will be undertaken. Some endoscopic procedures require patients to fast at least 12 hours before they are performed. In addition, doctors can also provide laxatives or laxatives to empty the digestive tract from feces and food scraps. The type of endoscopy that requires fasting or laxative consumption is usually endoscopy of the digestive tract, such as colonoscopy or gastroscopy.
The patient must tell the doctor about the medical condition in detail before undergoing endoscopy. If you are taking anticoagulant drugs, such as warfarin, the doctor will ask the patient to stop taking the drug to prevent bleeding, especially if a tissue biopsy will be performed. If needed, the doctor will give antibiotics for consumption before and after endoscopy to prevent infection.
Patients will be given an anesthetic (usually local), depending on the type of endoscopy performed, to make the area of numbness. If given local anesthetic, it can be given in the form of a spray to make the area to be numbed. If needed, the doctor will give a sedative (sedative) to help patients relax during this procedure. Some types of endoscopy, such as laparoscopy or mediastinoscopy, require general anesthesia in their actions.
After the endoscopy of the body to be examined is numb, the endoscope is inserted into the body carefully. An endoscope can be inserted through a hole in the body, such as the throat, anus, or urethra. In the type of endoscopy that cannot be done through a hole in the body, such as laparoscopy or arthroscopy, the doctor can make a small incision from the skin as a way to get the endoscope into the body.
The time needed to do endoscopy varies, depending on the organ being examined, as well as the presence or absence of treatment measures taken. The time needed can be brief, which is about 15 minutes, or a long time to 3 hours. After the endoscopy procedure is finished, the patient may be allowed to go home and carry out activities as usual, or it may also be recommended for hospitalization, depending on the type of endoscopy performed. If discharged, the patient is not permitted to drive himself until the effects of the anesthetic disappear.
If the patient is undergoing an endoscope that requires an incision, the doctor will stitch the incision and cover it with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. The doctor will also give directions to the patient how to keep the wound clean and sterile.
For the digestive tract, the latest technology allows viewing the digestive tract without inserting an endoscope tube. This is done by swallowing a capsule mounted by a camera to see the condition of the digestive tract. Images captured by the camera will be automatically transferred to the computer, wirelessly, so that they can be viewed through a computer monitor. The capsule will be disposed of naturally when the patient defecates. The risk is even lighter than endoscopy with a tube, although it is also possible that capsules can clog in the digestive tract, if there is a narrowing.
After the endoscopy is done, the doctor will ask the patient to rest for several hours until the effects of sedatives and anesthesia disappear. Patients will be allowed to go home, but must be delivered by friends or closest relatives. Discomfort such as sore throat after gastroscopy or bronchoscopy as well as bloody urination for 24 hours after cystoscopy or uteroscopy can be felt by the patient.
Patients are encouraged to eat soft foods as long as their throat is still painful. If blood in the urine still appears after 24 hours after cystoscopy or ureteroscopy, you should immediately contact the relevant doctor.
If during the endoscopy biopsy is performed, the results will come out within a few days, after being analyzed in the laboratory.