What is a Human Skeletal System?

Windowofworld.com – The human skeletal system is a series of bones that gives humans shape, structure, motion, and protection. It also functions as a producer of red blood cells and minerals, and is able to release hormones needed for the body to function properly. Get to know the human skeletal system and its possible diseases.

Humans are born with 300 bones. But as we get older, some bones coalesce, so that as an adult there are 206 bones in the human body. Each bone plays an important role so that all body mechanisms function properly.

Function of the Human Skeletal System

Unlike other organs in the body, bone composition is strong and dense. Bones also function in producing blood cells, and have their own nerves and lymph vessels. The function of the human skeletal system is as follows:

1. Support and give shape to the body

Bones provide body shape such as jaw shape and height. Bones also support the body so humans can stand upright or sit down.

2. As a means of movement

Bones together with muscles and joints support body movement, so humans can go about their daily activities, such as walking, writing, and eating.

3. Protect important organs

Bones protect important organs, such as the brain, lungs, and heart.

4. Producing blood cells

Bone marrow is a part of bone that functions to produce blood cells. Soft textured bone marrow can be found in the cavities of certain bones. In addition to producing blood cells, bone marrow also helps destroy old blood cells.

5. Store minerals

The human skeletal system stores two important minerals, namely calcium and phosphorus. Calcium and phosphorus are needed for cells to function properly, especially nerve cells and muscles.

When the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood do not match what is needed, the parathyroid hormone will regulate the deficiency by taking it from the bones. This means, bones are like a bank that stores calcium and phosphorus, which can be taken when needed. However, if calcium and phosphorus reserves have thinned out because it is too often taken, the bones will become porous making it vulnerable to fractures.

Types of Human Skeletal System

Based on its shape, bones are divided into:

1. Flat bones

Flat bones have a flat, wide surface. Flat bones include skull bones, ribs, lower jaw bones, shoulder blades, and sternum (sternum).

2. Long bones

Long bones are straight and thin. Bones that are classified as long bones, namely the humerus (upper arm bone), femur (femur), radius (pick bone), ulna (cubit bone), and shin.

3. Short bones

Short bones tend to be small and have a bearing. Included in this group include the patella (knee bone), and the bones of the feet and hands.

4. Irregular bones

Having a form that is incompatible with the three types of bone above. An example is the spine.

Do not miss, tooth enamel is also classified into the bone. Tooth enamel protects the nerves and fine tissue in the tooth, and is even stronger and more durable than bone.

In addition, there are joints which are the meeting place of two bones. There are joints that can be moved, some are not. Moving joints allow humans to make movements such as bending, writing, bending, and turning.

One of the most important types of joints is the hinge joint. Hinge joints are on the elbows and knees, and small ones are on the fingers and toes. This joint can only open or bend in one direction. Other types of movable joints are the bullet joints on the hips and shoulders, and the saddle joints on the palm. The bullet joint allows movement in all directions, while the saddle joint allows us to move, but the movement is limited.

Human Skeletal System Disorders

Scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis are some of the most common bone disorder terms. Some disorders and abnormalities in other human skeletal systems, namely:

1. Fracture

Fracture is a bone damage that can be cracked or broken so that it affects its function.

2. Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. Infection can occur due to an infection in another part of the body that attacks the bone, or because of complications from surgery.

3. Rickets

Rickets is an abnormal growth in children due to vitamin D deficiency.

4. Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is more threatening to women because the number of female bone cells is less than men. Menopause also plays a role in increasing the risk of osteoporosis.

5. Acromegaly

Acromegaly is caused by an excess amount of growth hormone (growth hormone) in the body. As a result, excessive growth occurs in the bones, especially on the face, arms and legs.

6. Fibrous dysplasia

Rare bone disorders where tissue such as sores grow on normal bone. This tissue can weaken bones and cause tissue damage.

7. Osteogenesis imperfecta

That is a disease caused by genetic disorders that cause a person born with brittle bones and are not formed properly. This rare disorder is hereditary.

8. Bone cancer

Generally, bone cancer originates from cancer in other organs, such as the prostate, lung, kidney, or breast, which then spread to the bones.

Tips for Maintaining the Health of the Human Skeleton System

Bones will lose strength with age. Therefore, we need to work to maintain bone strength by protecting and living a healthy lifestyle. How:

1. Eat foods high in calcium

Calcium is not only obtained from milk, but also from cheese, yogurt, sardines, salmon, spinach, broccoli, and tofu. Adults are advised to get a minimum calcium intake of 1,000 mg per day. Whereas for children who are still growing up need more, which is 1,300 mg per day.

2. Meet the needs of vitamin D

Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium. Adults are recommended to get vitamin D at least 600 IU per day. This need rises to 800 IU after 71 years old. Vitamin D is found in fish oil, tuna, milk and egg yolks. Vitamin D can also be obtained from the morning sun. If you’re worried about not being able to get enough vitamin D, you can take supplements.

3. Wear protection when driving and exercising

When cycling or riding a motorcycle, don’t forget to always wear a helmet. Likewise, when playing roller skates and skateboards, add protection on the wrists, as well as pads on the elbows and knees.

4. Exercise regularly

Human skeletal systems are designed to withstand loads. Some bones are even able to withstand as much as two times the weight of the body. However, bones must continue to be trained so as not to lose strength, through sports such as weight training, swimming, jogging, tennis, badminton, or simple activities such as walking and going up and down stairs. These activities can help slow down bone loss and build strong bones.

5. Avoid cigarettes and alcohol

Research shows that smoking can reduce bone density. The habit of drinking alcoholic beverages can also increase the risk of osteoporosis. This is likely caused by alcohol which can interfere with calcium absorption.

The human skeletal system supports your movement for a lifetime. Take care of his health so you can move freely until you are old. If you experience complaints on the bones, consult an orthopedic doctor in order to get the right treatment.