4 Types and Treatment of Hyperpigmentation
Windowofworld.com – Hyperpigmentation is a condition of the appearance of dark spots on the skin. The causes can vary. Although generally harmless, hyperpigmentation can interfere with appearance. However, there are several ways you can do to overcome them.
Skin hyperpigmentation occurs when the body produces excessive amounts of melanin. Melanin itself is a pigment that plays a role in giving body skin color. Dark patches on the skin can generally arise in certain body parts, but can also throughout the body.
Hyperpigmentation can be caused by various factors, such as inflammation of the skin, excessive and prolonged exposure to the sun, skin aging, use of certain medications, such as birth control pills, pregnancy, hemochromatosis (excessive iron levels), and Addison’s disease.
Types of Hyperpigmentation
Hyperpigmentation can be divided into several types. Each has a different cause, such as excessive sun exposure, age, or the impact of certain skin diseases.
Some of the most common types of hyperpigmentation are:
Melasma is characterized by the appearance of black patches on the chin, forehead, nose, temples, neck, upper lips, or cheeks on one or both sides of the face. In addition to the face, black spots that are not itchy or painful can also appear on other body parts, such as arms.
Melasma can appear in areas of the body that are often exposed to sunlight and is more common in women, although it can also occur in men. Those with dark skin are generally more at risk of developing melasma.
Melasma in women often occurs during pregnancy or due to taking birth control pills. Melasma that appears during pregnancy is called chloasma.
Lentigo is characterized by the appearance of black round or brown spots on the skin, such as on the face, arms, or back of the hands. The spots that appear are about 0.2-2 cm in size and have irregular shapes.
Based on the cause, lentigo can be divided into 2 types, namely:
- Solar lentigo, caused by sun exposure.
- Nonsolar lentigo, caused by congenital abnormalities such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
- Lentigo is also commonly experienced by middle aged or elderly people. As you age, lentigo spots can continue to grow.
3. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation
This condition, known as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, is characterized by brownish spots on the skin in certain parts of the body that have been injured or inflamed before. Large spot size but irregular shape.
These black spots are caused by injuries (eg burns), allergic reactions, side effects of drugs, and inflammation of the skin, such as acne or eczema.
Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation can also occur in people who carry out certain nursing procedures, such as lasers and microdermabrasion.
4. Hyperpigementation due to side effects of drugs and chemicals
This is a type of hyperpigmentation that occurs due to side effects of using certain drugs or chemicals.
These drugs can be in the form of antimalarial drugs, heart drugs (amiodarone), or chemotherapy, such as bleomycin and busulfan. While the chemicals that trigger hyperpigmentation are silver, gold and mercury.
Spots that arise are usually brownish, grayish, bluish, or bluish ash. Generally spotting can spread, while the shape and pattern of spotting can depend on the drug consumed. These patches generally arise on the face (especially the lips), hands, feet, or genitals.
The above types of skin hyperpigmentation are not dangerous conditions. However, you need to be aware if the patches that appear spread or spread quickly, irregular shape, there are sores on the spots, or hyperpigmentation accompanied by itching, pain, and bleeding easily.
Hyperpigmentation with these characteristics may indicate skin cancer.
How to Overcome Hyperpigmentation?
The appearance of black spots on the skin, especially facial skin, will certainly interfere with appearance. To overcome the spots due to hyperpigmentation, there are several treatment methods that you can do, including:
1. Vitamin C and kojic acid
Several studies have shown that creams or ointments containing vitamin C and kojic acid can brighten and reduce skin hyperpigmentation. The combination of these ingredients can inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase which plays a role in the formation of melanin.
2. Moisturizing Cream
Over-the-counter creams and prescription creams can also be an option. Choose products that contain hydroquinone and tretinoin. The combination of the two is known to be effective in helping brighten the skin.
Creams containing glycerin, hyaluronic acid, and retinol can also be an option. The combination of these ingredients can increase skin cell regeneration and work more effectively in brightening the skin.
However, be careful with the tretinoin content because the effects can harm the fetus. Therefore, creams containing tretinoin are not recommended for use by pregnant women or women who are planning a pregnancy.
3. Laser or chemical peeling
Generally hyperpigmentation that is treated with special creams will disappear. However, if it does not go away, other treatment methods are needed, such as lasers or chemical peels.
Skin hyperpigmentation can actually be prevented by diligently using SPF 30 sunblock before starting activities in the hot sun. In addition, also wear closed clothes or hats when outdoors activities.
However, hyperpigmentation should be checked by a dermatologist if the patches do not go away, get worse after treatment, or experience changes in shape, size, and color.