Machine embroidery is a special embroidery, carried out by special automated machines, which operates according to the man’s custom program.
This man is a designer, constructor. He creates the embroidery program (design) – the machine operation algorithm, which can consequently be repeated indefinitely. The machine that follows the given program automatically carries out the embroidery on material. In this way, the main features of machine embroidery are the absence of manual labor at the stage of direct embroidery, and the possibility of embroidery duplication.
The machine’s embroidery is a recent type of activity, unlike the manual embroidery, which existed for thousands of years. The machine embroidery began its existence almost 50 years ago and in the 1980s the demand for the machine’s embroidery profession began to grow. Nowadays the claim is actually. During the period of embroidery of the machine, his creation technology changed beyond recognition.
The machines used once as a source of information are the appropriate card, limited in speed and embroidery quality, replaced by microprocessor-based, highly productive, multifunctionals with advanced technology equipment that optimize the embroidery process.
The machine embroidery process consists technologically of two closely related stages:
The embroidery design stage, or the construction phase of machine embroidery, represents the process of creating embroidery machine. At this stage, the structural components of the embroidery are being developed.
The technical stage represents direct embroidery production by machine. At this stage, the technical components of machine embroidery are being developed.
Both these stages are at the same time fairly independent from the point of view of manufacturing, which helps to distinguish them and to highlight two different basic types of industrial activities accordingly. It is a matter of businesses that are specialized directly in the creation of the program, or in the material embroidery. Each of these branches develops a branched infrastructure system.
For example, there are many manufacturers of special program maintenance for machine embroidery, embroidery machines and specially-associated equipment manufacturers, from manufacturers of layout materials, used for the manufacture of embroidery. Many companies, in accordance with the embroidery needs of the machine, adjust the directions of their activity. For example, the textile fabric manufacturers make special adjustments of characteristics and spectrum, the clothing manufacturers change the construction, change it to the embroidery manufacturing technology.
Field of embroidery of the machine
Historically, the embroidery was primarily a decorative character. Nowadays, this essential property has benefited from its use in the advertising branch. We often see the embroidery advertising-informative character, on clothes items and other clothes.
Machine embroidery as advertising; informative carrier
Embroidery can be an effective ad information tool, at the same time without losing its artistic expression. It is commonly used for brands on the cloth, leather, felt, as well as on full products, clothing, and so forth. At embroidery it is possible to reproduce the brand of all color combinations. The trademark created by this method often becomes a modern feature of article and becomes an organic element of its composition. It is possible to bring different types of clothes, including uniform, work clothes. The embroidery as a typical index for any activity stream is widely used in many countries. Very often, the company workers carry the different sign of their company. It can be a logo on the head gear, on the front of the sweater or at the back of the jacket.
The lace embroidery, on many indices, passes its competitors, such as a serigraphy or decal (transfer seal). The embroidery is more lasting, the durability of thread color is higher, the volumetric texture of embroidery gives more expensive and spectacular shape to the logo. That is why most of the companies that deal with ad campaign development recommend the embroidery to their customers. The embroidery can be done on different clothes and on different items. On headbones (caps, knitted caps), sports gloves, shirts, toilets, even on shoes.
Technical component of machine embroidery
During the cycle embroidery production cycle various tools and tools are applied. However, from the availability of two basic stages of manufacturing, it can be two basic corresponding tools of embroidery.
The computer with appropriate program maintenance and peripherals at the construction stage of manufacture. Automatic embroidery machine with accompanying additional equipment at the technological stage of manufacture.
Let’s call the basic information of industrial automatic embroidery machines and some additional special accompanying equipment. Industrial automatic embroidery machines according to fulfilled activity and working principle can be divided into two groups:
Universal automatic embroidery machines.
Special automatic embroidery machines.
For special automatic embroidery machines, machines can be attributed using non-standard embroidery methods, machines that can embroider work on out-of-the-way full products and on hard embroidery materials. One of the most used types of special automatic embroidery machines can be attributed to the so-called Schiffli machines, which make it possible to make embroidery using decorative cord, to cut material while processing the cut through embroidery. These machines are mostly used for the finishing of light and thin, translucent, moderate and other smart cloth and articles made from it. For example, Schiffli machines are often used in wedding dresses.
A new interesting type of automatic special embroidery was introduced shortly ago – the so-called no-thread embroidery and automatic non-wire embroidery machines. The principle of operation of such machines has a remote conformance with the principle of manufacture of needle sticks. It consists of the fact that the machine with a set of needles (24 needles) through the structure of the main working material runs the locks of special auxiliary material. The auxiliary material is placed under the main material. After removal of the auxiliary material on the main material, it remains an effective, specific pattern (picture).
Currently, the leader in the production of non-wire embroidery machines is the Japan company Tanaka. In 2001, the fashion show in Berlin and Paris made impressive collections with the help of a wireless embroidery on the Vari-O-Matic machine of this company. For universal automatic embroidery machines, the end-of-life machines are associated with coordinate displaced frame holder, which is intended for the manufacture of embroidery with wires on classic and most widespread materials and articles. The use of such machines presupposes some limitations in properties of used materials and constructions of complete products.
However, these restrictions are becoming smaller due to the ongoing modernization and improvement of universal automatic embroidery machines and due to the use of multiple auxiliary facilities and special devices. All known universal automatic embroidery machines are of similar machines, and the structure of many parts of the mechanism has many similarities with the embroidery boards.
The main parts of the one-head universal automatic embroidery machine are column, case, frame holder and head. The case is attached to column and consists of pole and cantilevered arm. The stitching mechanism is installed in the upper part of the column. In this case, the main mechanism has been installed. On the head, a set of needle mechanisms is fitted with wire recording and wire guiding mechanisms. The head may move in the horizontal position, with the main shell in contact to raise the necessary needle mechanism.
This enables the machine to make the move of the thread color at an embroidery. The frame holder mechanism can move the frame holder into four directions of the active needle in a horizontal plane. The shift is made in step-type on coordinate according to given embroidery program. In this way, the machine can make loch-stitches on materials of different lengths and in any given order and direction, if necessary, move the shift of work with the thread of the particular color. The industrial automatic embroidery machines can be both single head and with a few heads and with the corresponding number of necessary working mechanisms. The latter are known as many head or multi-copy embroidery machines.
Under normal circumstances of embroidery, all heads and frame holders work mechanically synchronously.
The basic indices of industrial embroidery machines
Speed of embroidery.
It is expressed by the number of sticks per minute. The embroidery speed can be adjusted manually and automatically during embroidery. The optimal embroidery speed of modern machines ranges between 700-900 sticks per minute. Maximum speed reaches 1200-1400 sticks per minute.
Number of work heads.
In modern multi-head machines, head numbers come to 2-4 heads.
The size of the work area or the maximum size of the window used.
This index is concerned about the size of the embroidery. It is expressed by correlation of length and width of the work area in millimeters and is regulated for flat and cylindrical frame (used for caps, sleeves, etc.). There are the correlations spread 800 × 600, 500 × 400 and other-for-flat framework; 360 × 75, 400 × 350 and others for cylindrical frame.
It is equal to the number of needles on one head. It is defined by the maximum possible number of thread colors used in embroidery. The possible needle size in modern machines is from 1 to 12. The most spread is the machines with 9 needles. Other important indices are the noise and vibration level, the compatibility of the machine with different standard embroidery programs, the presence of accessories, errors of linear measurements of embroidery elements.
The accessories can be offered by various additional hinge devices for automatic release of decorative cord or ribbon, extensive control terminals, laser and video navigation systems of the work area, additional laser trimmers (wire cutter) and others.
The accompanying equipment can be offered by means of embroidery evaporation, various presses for glue chevron and meat production, special cutlery cutting machine in the form of laser cutters, which can automatically cut or drift on marks on cloth that is widely used in combination with embroidery appliqueworks production.