Malignant hypertension: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment
Windowofworld.com – Malignant hypertension is a medical emergency that occurs when blood pressure rises dramatically to far exceed its normal threshold. This condition can appear quickly and suddenly. If not treated immediately, malignant hypertension can cause damage to organs, even death.
Malignant hypertension is a condition of severe hypertension that is emergency. Malignant hypertension is characterized by a surge in blood pressure to reach 180/120 mmHg or higher than that number.
In fact, normal adult blood pressure around 120/80 mm Hg. The figure of 120 mmHg shows systolic pressure, while 80 mmHg shows diastolic pressure.
Hypertension is often asymptomatic, so many people do not realize that they suffer from hypertension or high blood pressure. If left untreated, hypertension can become more severe and develop malignant hypertension.
When you have malignant hypertension, sufferers of this condition can experience damage to various organs of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes, and lungs. However, in some cases, the cause of malignant hypertension is often not clearly known.
Symptoms and Complications of Malignant Hypertension
Some people with malignant hypertension may not experience any complaints. However, others can experience the following symptoms:
- Blurred vision
- Severe headache
- Nausea and vomiting
- Chest pain and chest palpitations
- Tingling or numbness
- The amount of urine is reduced or small
- Hard to breathe
- Mental status changes, such as confusion, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and often sleepy
- Passed out
If not treated immediately, malignant hypertension can cause various complications, such as:
- Pulmonary edema or swelling
- Heart attack
- Heart failure
- Kidney failure
People at Risk of Malignant Hypertension
Malignant hypertension is actually quite rare. This condition is estimated to only occur in about 1-2 people of 1 million sufferers of high blood pressure. Although classified as rare, malignant hypertension is a very dangerous medical emergency.
Until now, the cause of malignant hypertension is still unknown with certainty. However, several studies show that damage to blood vessels in the body’s organs is often one of the factors that can trigger malignant hypertension.
In addition, there are several conditions that are known to increase a person’s risk of developing malignant hypertension, namely:
- High blood pressure that is not well controlled, for example due to lack of regular medication
- Unhealthy lifestyles, such as frequent smoking and consuming alcoholic beverages, and often consume foods high in salt and fat
- Kidney disease, such as kidney failure
- Autoimmune disorders, such as scleroderma
- Tumors of the adrenal glands, including pheochromocytoma
- Spinal cord injury
- Side effects of certain drugs, such as birth control pills, antidepressants, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and illegal drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Hypertension
Malignant hypertension is important to detect early so it does not cause fatal complications. To diagnose malignant hypertension, the doctor will conduct a physical examination, including blood pressure measurements, and several supporting examinations, such as:
- Blood and urine test
- Examination of kidney function
- Radiological examination, such as X-ray, angiography, ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI
- Echocardiogram and electrocardiogram
If the results of the doctor’s examination indicate that the patient has malignant hypertension, the treatment needs to be done in the hospital. If malignant hypertension has caused severe damage to organs, the sufferer may need to undergo treatment at the ICU (intensive care unit).
The main goal of managing malignant hypertension is to gradually reduce high blood pressure. To treat malignant hypertension, doctors can provide the following treatments:
Malignant hypertension needs to be treated with antihypertensive drugs as soon as possible. Generally, the doctor will give blood pressure-lowering drugs or antihypertensives through injections in infusions.
After the blood pressure begins to decrease and stabilize, the doctor can replace the injection of antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs in the form of oral medication. Antihypertensive drugs are also given when the patient is allowed to go home from the hospital.
In addition, the doctor may also give other medicines, such as diuretic drugs, if the patient experiences pulmonary edema or swelling of the brain.
1. Oxygen therapy
People with malignant hypertension may experience respiratory distress, fainting, or even coma. This can cause sufferers to experience lack of oxygen. Therefore, doctors can provide oxygen therapy through oxygen hoses or masks.
If the patient is comatose or unable to breathe, the doctor may give oxygen therapy through a ventilator.
2. Wash blood
If it has caused severe kidney damage or kidney failure, people with malignant hypertension may need to undergo dialysis procedures. However, this action is usually only done if the blood pressure is controlled and the patient can undergo dialysis stated.
Prevent Malignant Hypertension in These Methods
To prevent this dangerous attack of hypertension, you need to routinely carry out regular blood pressure checks at the hospital and at home with a blood pressure meter (tensimeter).
If you already suffer from hypertension, do not forget to take the medication your doctor prescribes regularly and do not reduce the dosage or pass the time.
In addition, you are also advised to live a healthy lifestyle, such as:
- Increase consumption of fruits and vegetables and limit or reduce the consumption of foods high in salt and high in saturated fat
- Exercise regularly
- Stop smoking and stay away from cigarette smoke
- Enough rest
- Reduce stress
In order not to experience malignant hypertension, you can maintain blood pressure to remain stable in a number of ways above. If you do have hypertension, don’t forget to take antihypertensive medication regularly and have a health check with your doctor regularly.
If you have experienced some signs and symptoms of malignant hypertension, immediately consult a doctor at the hospital. It is intended that malignant hypertension can be treated quickly, so that dangerous complications due to this attack can be prevented.