5 Types and Functions of Pregnancy Hormones


5 Types and Functions of Pregnancy Hormones

Windowofworld.com – Various pregnancy hormones can bring changes to the body to protect the fetus in the womb. There are pregnancy hormones that occur only during pregnancy, but there are also hormones that have been there before but the levels change in the body during pregnancy.

Not only physical changes, various pregnancy hormones can cause emotional changes during pregnancy. These hormonal changes can even cause annoying symptoms during pregnancy. In certain cases, this pregnancy hormone can cause excessive vomiting during pregnancy, as well as decreased visual function. Hormonal changes during pregnancy are also often thought to cause pregnant women to often sweat and strange dreams during pregnancy.

Various Pregnancy Hormones

Here are some pregnancy hormones and hormones that change during pregnancy:

1. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Hormone (hCG)

Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone is a pregnancy hormone produced in the placenta. This hormone will help maintain pregnancy and fetal development in the womb. HCG levels can also be a marker of pregnancy as well as the health of the fetus contained.


If your hCG level is low, there is a chance that you have an ectopic pregnancy, infant mortality, or a gestational age that is younger than expected. Conversely, very high levels of hCG can be a sign of multiple pregnancy, Down Syndrome, molar pregnancy or gestational age that is older than expected. While the decrease in hCG levels abnormally, can be a sign that you are having a miscarriage.

2. Human placental lactogen (hPL)

Human placental lactogen is produced by the placenta after 6 weeks of gestation. This hormone, also known as human chorionic somatomammotropin, has a role in preparing the nutrients needed by the fetus and stimulating the mammary glands in the breast until breastfeeding.

3. Estrogen

Estrogen already exists in a woman’s body before becoming pregnant. But during pregnancy, estrogen levels in a woman’s body will increase significantly. Increased estrogen levels will cause nausea during pregnancy, especially the first trimester. If you feel nausea during pregnancy, there are several ways to relieve nausea during pregnancy that you can try. In addition, changes in the hormone estrogen can also make pregnant women often feel hot during pregnancy.

While in the second trimester, the hormone estrogen contributes to the enlargement of milk ducts in the breast. The functions and effects of the hormone estrogen during pregnancy include:

  • Improve the blood flow system or the formation of blood vessels.
  • Increase blood pressure during pregnancy.
  • Helps provide the nutrients the fetus needs to develop.
  • Supports fetal development.
  • Causes changes in skin pigmentation, so some women experience a glowing face during pregnancy or known as pregnancy glow.

4. Progesterone

Appear fine hairs on the breast or abdomen is one of the effects of changes in progesterone hormone levels during pregnancy. Dizziness due to low blood pressure, heartburn, nausea, and constipation are also felt to be another impact of the increase in the hormone progesterone during pregnancy.

However, behind the quite unpleasant effects, progesterone is one of the pregnancy hormones that is important for:

  • Keep the uterine muscles relaxed during pregnancy.
  • Maintain the thickness of the uterine wall during the developing fetus.
  • Maintain the immune system against the presence of the fetus in the body.

5. Oxytocin and prolactin

The hormone oxytocin has a role in stimulating the flexibility of the cervix at the end of pregnancy, which is important for the preparation of labor. This hormone also helps stimulate the nipples to produce milk. While the prolactin hormone will increase by 10 to 20 times when a woman is pregnant. This increased hormone is beneficial in preparing breast tissue for breastfeeding by helping to produce abundant milk production.

Pregnancy hormones play a role in maintaining the health of the womb and the fetus, as well as various changes in a woman’s body during pregnancy. Changes in pregnancy hormones can also usually make pregnant women feel complaints, for example, frequent urination during pregnancy and frequent emotions. But sometimes pregnancy hormones can also be formed when women experience fake pregnancy.

If changes in the body due to pregnancy hormones are felt uncomfortable or very disturbing, you should consult an obstetrician to find out the cause and get treatment.

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