Review the Role of Neurosurgeon and Actions Performed
Neurosurgeons are specialist doctors who can diagnose, provide treatment, and perform operations to treat disorders of the nervous system. This nervous system includes the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), as well as peripheral nerves that are in all parts of the body.
To become a neurosurgeon, a person needs to have a general doctor’s degree first, then complete a specialized education in neurosurgery for at least 5 years.
Neurosurgery is a fairly specific branch of medical science and the number of doctors in Indonesia studying this field is still small.
Division of Neurosurgery
The nervous system is a complex network that carries messages from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body, and vice versa.
This organ system allows the body to move, think, remember, speak, see, hear, and feel physical stimuli, such as touch, heat or cold, and pain.
In practice, neurosurgery is further divided into several subspecialty fields, namely:
1. Pediatric neurosurgery
Treat nerve disorders in children, including deformities of the head and face, hydrocephalus, spinal deformities, and brain tumors or nerve tissue tumors.
2. Neurological oncology surgery
Treats brain and spinal cord cancer. The doctor can recommend treatment with chemotherapy methods, radiation therapy, or surgical removal of the tumor.
3. Functional neurosurgery
Handling a number of disorders of the nerves that regulate movement (motor) and excitatory reception (sensory), such as epilepsy, impaired body coordination, and cerebral palsy (cerebral palsy).
4. Vascular neurosurgery
Diagnose and treat problems with blood vessels in the brain, such as brain aneurysms, deformities of blood vessels in the brain (venous artery malformations / AVM), fistulas, and ischemic strokes.
5. Trauma neurosurgery
Specifically dealing with cases of head injuries and brain injuries.
6. Skull surgery
Manage disorders of the skull, such as tumors, infections, brain herniations, or bleeding at the base of the skull.
7. Spine surgery
Treat surgery on the spinal nerves, such as pinched nerves (HNP) or tumors that compress the spinal nerves.
The broad scope of work also makes neurosurgeons often collaborate with other specialist doctors, such as neurologists and orthopedic surgeons.
Neurologists or neurologists are different from neurosurgeons. Neurologists deal with problems in the brain and nervous system only with minimal drug administration, therapy, and invasive methods, without surgery or surgery.
Various Diseases That Can Be Treated by Neurosurgeons
Some of the common conditions that neurosurgeons treat are:
Rupture of cerebral blood vessels (cerebral aneurysm).
Cancer or tumor in the brain, skull and spine.
Spinal disorders, such as spinal malformations, pinched nerves, and inflammation of the spine that irritates nerves.
Injury to the spine, head or neck.
Movement disorders, such as epilepsy, carpal tunnel syndrome, and Parkinson’s disease.
Brain and spinal cord infections, such as brain abscesses and meningitis.
Congenital conditions, such as spina bifida.
Conditions that affect the flow of cerebral and spinal fluid, such as hydrocephalus.
Tumors of the pituitary gland and endocrine glands.
Various other diseases that can interfere with brain function and spinal cord, such as multiple sclerosis; and nerve pain, such as trigeminal neuralgia and sciatica, can also be treated by neurosurgeons.
What Doctors Can Do Neurosurgery
To determine the diagnosis of the disease, the neurosurgeon will trace the medical history and symptoms felt by the patient and perform a physical examination.
Next, the doctor will perform several supporting tests, such as blood tests, urine tests, brain fluid analysis, and radiological examinations, such as X-rays, CT scans, PET scans, brain angiography, or MRI. Neurosurgeons will also often recommend checking the electrical flow of the brain or EEG.
After the diagnosis is confirmed, the neurosurgeon will determine the appropriate treatment method. For mild cases, the treatment can be without surgery, for example by changing lifestyle, administering drugs, or using assistive devices.
However, if the condition is severe enough or needs to be treated immediately, a neurosurgeon can perform the following actions:
Craniotomy, including awake brain surgery (brain surgery when the patient is conscious).
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), tumor management with radiation therapy.
Surgical removal of a brain tumor or nerve tissue tumor.
Biopsy of brain tissue or nerve tissue.
Deep brain stimulation, involves installing electrodes in certain areas of the brain.
Surgery to remove pus in a brain abscess.
Installation of a special hose to remove excess brain fluid (VP shunt surgery). This procedure is often done in cases of hydrocephalus
When should you see a neurosurgeon?
Disorders of the brain and nerves can be dangerous and even fatal if not treated immediately. Therefore, it is important to recognize the signs or symptoms. Symptoms of disorders of the brain and nerves can include:
Severe or persistent headaches, which do not go away with pain medication.
Vomiting suddenly without nausea.
Decreased consciousness or coma.
Fainted after suffering a head injury.
Seizures or uncontrolled movements in certain parts of the body.
Weakness or paralysis in the arms and legs.
Numbness in certain body parts.
Easy to forget or hard to remember.
Pain in certain body parts that do not go away.
Although these can be caused by other diseases, these symptoms should not be ignored, because they can indicate a serious disorder of the nerves. Therefore, immediately consult a neurosurgeon so that the problem can be resolved as early as possible.
Things You Need To Prepare Before Checking Yourself Neurosurgeon
A person usually goes to a neurosurgeon after getting a referral from a general practitioner or other specialist doctor. Before coming to see a neurosurgeon, it is advisable to bring all the results of examinations that have been done before.
To make it easier for neurosurgeons to determine the right treatment, also prepare the following:
List of complaints that are felt. Tell your doctor about all the symptoms and complaints in detail.
List of history of illnesses that have suffered or internal medicine Some neurological diseases are hereditary or caused by certain diseases.
List of medicines that are being consumed (including supplements and herbal medicines), as well as allergies.
List daily habits, including sleeping habits, eating habits, and consumption of alcoholic drinks.
In addition, ask your family or friends to accompany you when consulting. In addition to making you calmer, a companion can help you make a decision if the doctor recommends a particular surgery or action.
Before consulting a neurosurgeon, you should first find out the costs involved. Prepare more funds because there may be additional costs for supporting investigations.