10 Questions about Sex and Reproductive Health
Windowofworld.com – Do you have questions about sex and health that you would like to ask? Check out common questions about sex and reproductive health below. Who knows, you may find answers to questions that have been in your head.
1. Do Men Have Menopause?
The answer is yes, a man also goes through menopause but it is at a different rate than a woman. Menopause is a term used to describe the end of a woman’s fertile period.
Literally, it means the end of menstruation. Male menopause is characterized by a change in hormone production. Meanwhile, different from the female ovaries, male testes cannot lose their ability to produce hormones.
Under healthy conditions, the male reproductive organs are able to produce sperm properly, until they are 80 years old or more. However, small changes in testicular function, can occur at age 45-50 years, and become more significant at age 70 years.
Menopause in men is known as androgen (testosterone) deficiency, which is usually experienced by older men. However, this decrease in testosterone can also be associated with several diseases, such as diabetes.
2. How Often Should Women Have Pelvic Examination and Pap Smear Test?
The pap smear test is recommended for women aged 21 years and over. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends routine screening for women aged 21-65 years, once every 2 years, to undergo a pap smear examination.
This test will be done more often if the results show symptoms of cervical cancer. Combining the pap smear test with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) test, can safely extend the interval between each cervical cancer screening, from 3 to 5 years, in women 30-65 years old based on data from the U.S Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). They also believe that HPV testing is not recommended for women in their 20s.
People in this age group can develop HPV infection which will go away without treatment. Women over 65 years of age can stop taking the pap smear test, if they have had three negative tests in a row, or two negative HPV tests.
In contrast, women who test for precancerous abnormalities should continue testing for at least 20 years
3. What Are the Risks and Benefits of Circumcision?
Circumcision of newborn males for medical or health reasons is a matter of debate. In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) reported that circumcision has both medical benefits and risks. The available scientific evidence is insufficient to recommend circumcision.
Therefore, this procedure is not essential for the well-being of the child. So, the decision to circumcise becomes a decision for parents and doctors, taking into account many things including health, religion, culture and ethnic traditions.
There are also several benefits of circumcision, including:
- Reduced risk of urinary tract infections
- Reduced risk of sexually transmitted diseases in men
- Protection against penile cancer and cervical cancer risk in women
- Prevention of inflammation of the glands and inflammation of the glands and foreskin
- Prevention of the inability to retract the foreskin
- Prevention of the inability to return the foreskin to its original place
Meanwhile, the risks that can be experienced during circumcision are:
- Bleeding and infection
- Irritation of the glands
- Increased risk of urethritis
- Risk of penile injury
4. Is vaginal discharge a normal condition?
Women normally produce vaginal fluids, which are clear or whitish, non-irritating, and odorless. During a normal menstrual cycle, the amount and consistency of vaginal discharge can vary.
During a period of 1 month, there may be a small amount of fluid that is very thin and watery, but at other times, a large, thick fluid appears. All of these processes are considered normal. A vaginal discharge that smells or is irritating is usually considered abnormal. The irritation can be itching, burning, or both.
The itching can be present at any time, but is often annoying at night. Therefore, it is important to consult your doctor about these changes.
5. Is Hormone Replacement Therapy for Menopause Bad for Women?
There is much debate in the scientific community about hormone replacement or hormone replacement therapy (HRT). In general, hormone treatment is believed to maintain healthy bones after menopause and can relieve menopausal symptoms.
However, like all medications, there may be some dangerous side effects, including an increased risk of uterine cancer and breast cancer. This therapy is also not suitable for everyone.
6. Can a woman get pregnant while breastfeeding?
Although breastfeeding can suppress or delay menstruation, it turns out that you can still potentially become pregnant. Ovulation will occur before you start having another menstrual period, so follow your doctor’s recommendations on the right contraceptive method to use.
7. Can Hysterectomy Cause Sexual Problems for Women?
Some women will experience changes in sexual function after a hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus). These changes can include loss of desire to have sex, decreased vaginal lubrication, and genital sensation. Furthermore, surgery can damage nerves and blood vessels which are considered important for female sexual function.
8. Can Syphilis Be Contagious?
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease. A person with syphilis can spread the infection in two stages of the disease. If you come in contact with an open wound (first stage) or if you have a skin rash (second stage), then you can catch the bacteria that cause infection.
If bacteria enter your body through an opening such as your penis, anus, vagina, mouth, or cracked skin you can get syphilis.
9. How Can Someone Get Infected With HIV?
The following are activities that can increase the risk of HIV infection:
- Share syringes to take medicine
- Having unprotected sex with an infected person
Meanwhile, HIV is not transmitted when you:
- Touch or hug someone with HIV
- Share a public bathroom or swimming pool with sufferers
- Sharing cups, utensils, cell phones with an infected person
- Bitten by insects
10. Is it OK to Use Vaseline as a Lubricant with Latex Condoms?
The answer is no. Use only water-based lubricants with condoms. Oil-based ingredients can weaken condoms and damage them.
Factors Affecting Reproductive Health
Based on the mapping of the Ministry of Health, there are at least 4 factors that affect reproductive health, namely demographic-economic, cultural and environmental, psychological, and biological factors.
1. Demographic-Economic Factors
The level of education and welfare also influences understanding of sexual development and reproductive processes. Meanwhile, demographic factors also have an impact on access to reproductive health services.
2. Cultural and Environmental Factors
Beliefs, community perceptions, and location of residence, can have an impact on knowledge on reproductive health. This is because there is still the view that “many children have a lot of sustenance” in the Indonesian community, without being accompanied by adequate knowledge about reproductive health.
3. Psychological factors
In fact, low self-confidence can have a negative impact on reproductive health. In addition, any consequences of violence will affect reproductive health.
4. Biological factors
In this case, what is meant by biological factors include reproductive organ defects, malnutrition, anemia and pelvic inflammation. This factor mainly affects women’s reproductive health.