Stage 5 Kidney Failure: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Windowofworld.com – Stage 5 kidney failure is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. This stage indicates that the kidneys have not been able to function properly, which is to filter and get rid of “waste” and excess fluid from the blood.
In the medical world, stage 5 kidney failure is better known as end stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney function in patients with ESRD usually does not reach 10 percent of normal function. That means, the kidneys are almost not functioning or even not functioning at all.
Before reaching the final stage of kidney failure, patients with chronic kidney disease will experience a gradual decline in kidney function. This kidney function can be measured by calculating the glomerular filtration rate (LFG). The details are as follows:
- Stage 1 (LFG above 90): kidney function is still working normally, but early signs of kidney disease may have appeared.
- Stage 2 (LFG 60-89): kidney function is slightly decreased.
- Stage 3 (LFG 30-59): the filtering of residual substances from the body has begun to be ineffective, resulting in various complaints.
- Stage 4 (LFG 15-29): kidney function is very low.
- Stage 5 (LFG below 15): the kidneys hardly function, so that excess waste and excess fluid builds up in the body.
Causes of Stage 5 Kidney Failure
- Type 1 or 2 diabetes
- Autoimmune diseases, such as lupus
- Other kidney diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease, kidney stones, glomerulonephritis, nephritis syndrome, or recurrent kidney infections
Symptoms of Kidney Failure Stage 5
When kidney failure is still in its early stages, symptoms of kidney damage are usually not visible. New symptoms will appear when the kidneys begin to not be able to filter waste substances and fluids from the body efficiently. When arriving at this stage, sufferers will experience symptoms such as:
- Less frequent urination and less amount of urine
- Nausea and vomiting
- Easily tired
- No appetite
- Very dry and itchy skin
- Skin color becomes darker or lighter
- Sleep disturbance
- Muscle cramp
- Difficult to concentrate
- Erectile dysfunction
When the condition is getting worse, patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease can also experience swelling of the feet, hands, or face, fluid buildup in the lungs (pulmonary edema), heart problems, broken bones, and convulsions.
Management of Stage 5 Kidney Failure
In patients with chronic kidney disease who have entered the final stage, doctors will usually recommend treatment methods that include:
1. Dialysis (hemodialysis)
In this procedure, the kidney’s function to filter blood will be replaced by a special machine. The dialysis procedure takes about 4 hours and must be done at least 3 times a week.
2. Kidney transplant
Another treatment option for patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease is kidney transplantation. In this procedure, the damaged kidney will be replaced with a healthy kidney from the donor. Only, sufferers have to wait long enough to get a new kidney.
In addition to the above treatment, the doctor will also prescribe medicines, especially to treat diseases that cause kidney damage to patients.
The doctor will also recommend setting a special diet by limiting the consumption of certain foods and the amount of fluid that enters. This is because the ability of the kidneys to filter waste and excess fluid from the body has been greatly reduced.
Stage 5 kidney failure is the final stage of chronic kidney failure. However, before reaching this stage, kidney failure can still be controlled so as not to get worse.
That is why, you are encouraged to do regular health checks and consult a doctor immediately if you experience complaints that lead to kidney disorders. The faster the kidney damage is known, the smaller the risk of reaching stage 5 kidney failure.