7 Types of Tropical Diseases You Need to Know
Windowofworld.com – Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that occur in many tropical regions. What are the types of tropical diseases? Let’s follow the discussion in the following article.
Tropical diseases can be caused by various types of infections, ranging from viral, bacterial, fungal, to parasitic infections. The spread or transmission of the disease can occur directly between one person to another or through disease-carrying animals (vectors), such as mosquitoes and insects.
High cases of infectious diseases in the tropics are caused by climatic factors, such as warm temperatures and humidity and high rainfall. In addition, environmental factors, such as poor hygiene and sanitation, also contribute to the causes of tropical diseases that still occur in several countries.
Therefore, you should be more aware of tropical diseases, because some of these types of diseases are contagious and very dangerous for health.
Several Types of Tropical Diseases
The following are some types of tropical diseases that are found in several countries:
1. Dengue fever
Dengue fever is caused by dengue virus that enters the human body through the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Symptoms of this disease usually appear 4-6 days after being bitten by the mosquito.
The following are some of the symptoms of dengue fever:
- High fever.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Muscle and bone pain.
- Decreased appetite.
- Pain in the back of the eye.
- Bleeding, such as bleeding gums, nosebleeds, or bruising easily.
- Reddish rash (appears about 2-5 days after fever).
To prevent transmission of dengue fever, you are advised to use mosquito nets and install mosquito screens on windows and doors of the house.
In addition, the government also appealed to the community to take 3M Plus as a preventive measure for dengue fever, which is draining water reservoirs, closing water reservoirs, and recycling items that can be breeding grounds for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
2. Elephant Feet
Other tropical diseases that are still quite common in some country are elephantiasis or filariasis. This disease is caused by filarial parasitic worms which are also transmitted through mosquito bites. When it enters the body through mosquito bites, the worm will block the flow of lymph.
Some sufferers of this disease do not experience symptoms. However, some other patients can experience symptoms such as fever, swelling in the legs, and sores on the skin. In addition to the legs, swelling can also occur in the arms, breasts, and even genital organs.
Malaria is a tropical disease that is endemic in Indonesia. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito.
Symptoms of malaria will appear 10-15 days after being bitten by a mosquito. When exposed to malaria, a person can experience symptoms of fever, headache, chills, lots of sweating, pain in the bones and muscles, nausea, vomiting, and weakness. If left untreated, malaria can become severe malaria that attacks the brain.
Prevention of malaria is generally the same as preventing dengue fever, which is to avoid mosquito bites and prevent mosquitoes from nesting inside the house and its surroundings.
In addition, additional malaria prevention measures can be done by taking prophylactic antimalarial drugs, namely doxycycline, according to the doctor’s prescription.
Schistosomiasis is a type of tropical disease caused by the parasitic worm schistosoma. This type of parasite is commonly found in ponds, lakes, rivers, reservoirs, or canals in tropical or subtropical regions.
Not only schistosomiasis, other intestinal worms such as pinworms, hookworms, tapeworms and roundworms are also commonly found in tropical countries, including Indonesia.
Symptoms of schistosomiasis usually appear within a few weeks after being infected with schistosoma worms. Some of the symptoms of schistosomiasis that can occur include:
- Red rashes and itching appear on the skin
- Indigestion, such as diarrhea and abdominal pain
- Muscle and joint pain
If it gets worse, schistosomiasis can cause more severe symptoms, such as urine or stool accompanied by blood, swelling of the stomach, kidneys, or spleen, and even paralysis.
To prevent the occurrence of this tropical disease, you are advised to maintain personal hygiene and the environment and filter and cook water until it is completely cooked before drinking.
5. Fungal infections
The fungus that causes infection easily grows in tropical regions with warm and humid temperatures. These environmental conditions make people living in the tropics at higher risk for fungal infections.
Various types of fungal infections of the skin are caused by many factors, ranging from physical contact with an infected person, poor hygiene, to a weak immune system.
These fungal infections can be prevented in several ways, including:
- Maintain cleanliness of the body by bathing regularly and drying the body afterwards.
- Dry your body immediately and change clothes every time you sweat.
- Avoid sharing the use of personal equipment, such as towels and clothing, with others.
- Use clothes that are clean and easily absorb sweat.
- Wear footwear in public or every activity.
- Routinely cut toenails and hands.
Tuberculosis or TB is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This disease that often attacks the lungs can be transmitted through saliva splashes when TB sufferers cough or sneeze.
Apart from the lungs, TB can also attack other organs, such as lymph nodes, brain, bones, kidneys, digestive tract, and skin.
TB needs to be treated with antituberculosis drugs for at least 6 months without dropping out. This is important to prevent the transmission of TB to others and to prevent the occurrence of MDR or drug resistant TB.
Leprosy is a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. This disease attacks and damages the nervous system, skin, eyes, and lining of the nasal mucosa. If not treated immediately, leprosy can cause severe nerve damage that can cause disability in the sufferer.
Some symptoms that can be experienced by people with leprosy include:
- Tingling or numbness
- Reddish or whitish spots appear on the skin
- Fall on eyebrows and eyelashes
- Wounds or ulcers that are not painful
- Hair loss in certain body parts
- Pain and swelling in the joint
Leprosy is more at risk for people who have weak immune systems and live in endemic areas of leprosy, including Indonesia, India, and China.
In addition to the above diseases, there are several other tropical diseases that you also need to watch out for, such as trachoma, rabies, chikungunya, cholera, leptospirosis, and yaws.
Climate factors that cause high cases of tropical diseases in Indonesia and several other tropical countries are inevitable.
However, the risk of tropical diseases can be reduced if you regularly maintain health and personal hygiene and the environment by washing hands frequently or cleaning hands with hand sanitizers, wearing masks when traveling, and not littering.
If you experience some symptoms that indicate the possibility of tropical diseases, immediately consult a doctor to get the right treatment.